经济学人:偏见的另一代价

嘚啵嘚/ 十月 26, 2014/ 感悟/ 0 comments

偏见的另一代价 Another cost of bigotry

二战中德国对犹太人的迫害

THE assertion that Jews “control” finance is commonplace among anti-Semites. A new academic study finds that people who live in areas of Germany where persecution of Jews was most intense are less likely to invest in the stockmarket, even today.

犹太人控制了金融业——这一论断在反犹人士中已是老生常谈。一项新的学术研究结果显示,德国曾迫害犹太人最严重地区的居民时至今日仍很少投资于股票市场。

The relationship has very strong historical roots. People who live in districts from which Jews were likeliest to be sent to concentration camps under the Nazis are 7.5% less likely to invest in stocks than other Germans; those who live in districts where pogroms occurred during the Black Death (back in the 14th century) are 12% less likely to do so. Surveys also show residents of such districts are less likely to trust the financial sector.

这一研究结果有着深厚的历史渊源。纳粹时期德国一些地区的犹太人最有可能被送往集中营,现在这里的居民和其他地区相投资股票的可能性小7.5%; 14世纪部分地区的犹太人被诬指为黑死病起源而遭到屠杀,现在这里的居民和其他地区相比投资股票的可能性小12%。调查发现,上述地区的居民很难信任金融业。

The results hold up when compared with nearby districts, with those that are in the same states and with areas that were in the same occupation zones after the second world war. The authors used another test as a further control. Historically, German Jews settled in the Rhine valley. So German districts close to the valley were more likely to have pogroms, and people there are less likely to invest in stocks than those further away. But when they compared French districts that are close to the Rhine with more distant ones, there was no difference in stockmarket participation.

将上述地区和其附近地区相比、和同一个州的其他地区相比、和二战后处于同一占领区(战后,英、美、法、苏对德国实行分区占领,并最终使德国分裂为西德、东德——译者注)的地区相比,这一研究结果都一样适用。作者又援引一例,以进一步证明其研究结果。历史上,德国的犹太人生活在莱茵河谷地区,其附近地区因而更易于发生针对犹太人的大屠杀,其附近地区的居民和德国生活在相距较远地区的居民相比,也更少有投资于股票者。但当作者将法国的莱茵河谷地区附近地区与较远地区比较时,居民参与股票市场的程度并无不同。

The authors find that this distrust of finance affects people of all education levels, even though the more educated are less likely to be anti-Semitic. They conclude that these areas have “a cultural norm of distrust in finance that has transmitted across generations independently from anti-Semitism”.

作者发现,对金融业的不信任影响了不同教育程度的人,即使那些受教育程度高的人相对而言反犹倾向较小,他们对金融业也同样抱有或多或少的怀疑。作者得出结论:上述地区对金融业不信任的文化传统一代一代传递而来,与反犹主义无关。

The effect of this distrust is that German savers in such districts earn lower returns, because they have lower exposure to the stockmarket. “The legacy of Jewish persecution—distrust of finance—has hindered generations of Germans from accumulating financial wealth,” the authors argue. In other words, “Persecution of minorities reduces not only the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well.”

这种不信任,导致上述地区的德国储户财产收益相对较低,因为他们很少接触股票市场。“迫害犹太人所带来的遗产——对金融业的不信任——阻碍了几代德国人积累金融财富的步伐,”作者称。换句话说,“对少数群体()的迫害不仅削减了受迫害者的长期财富,迫害者本身也未能幸免。”

英文原文地址:Another cost of bigotry

译文原文地址:偏见的另一代价

嘚啵嘚的感悟:

偏见与宽容一直以来就是人类对待他人和其他观点的重要议题。了解一些历史的人都知道,因为偏见,我们不知走了多少弯路,不知付出了多少惨重的代价。宽容的对待他人,对待不同的观点,在发展的道路上,偏信则暗,兼听则明,宽容的心态将让我们更好的拥抱未来。人性使然,我们很容易滑向偏执、狭隘,在这个网络时代,少一些攻讦,多一些探讨,我们这个时代才能更好。这些宽容的时代需要我们共同营造。

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